Foto: Mauro Sciambi / Roma. SKYPIXEL (31/01/2020).

ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA 2021. Clementina Panella et al., “Rome, Colosseum square and NE slopes of the Palatine hill: toward an integrated 3D system for stratigraphic data management and ancient urban landscape reconstruction.” GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [in PDF]. Foto: Mauro Sciambi / Roma. SKYPIXEL (31/01/2020). S.v., THE NEW YORK TIMES August 12, (2015), p. C5.

ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA 2021. Clementina Panella et al., "Colosseum square & NE slopes of the Palatine hill: an integrated 3D system for stratigraphic data management & ancient urban landscape reconstruction." GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [PDF].
Foto: Clementina Panella et al., GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [in PDF].

ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA 2021. Clementina Panella, Emanuele Brienza & Lorenzo Fornaciari, “Rome, Colosseum square and NE slopes of the Palatine hill: toward an integrated 3D system for stratigraphic data management and ancient urban landscape reconstruction.” GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [in PDF].

Abstract – The investigations carried out in the valley of the Colosseum and on the NE slopes of the Palatine have disclosed a complex sequence of urban and monumental interventions whose documentation has inevitably produced a vast amount of data that is difficult to manage without the aid of an information system. With the recent development of new applications, it is possible to create a system for the integration and visualisation of archaeological data, both in two and three-dimensional format, and to experiment with new criteria and methods for the combined and effective use of documents of a different nature.

Introduction
The archaeological record collection: techniques and procedures
New analysis tools
Towards an integrated system
Data sharing
Considerations on 3D GIS and BIM for the study of ancient architecture
Reference list
Notes

ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA 2021. Clementina Panella et al., "Colosseum square & NE slopes of the Palatine hill: an integrated 3D system for stratigraphic data management & ancient urban landscape reconstruction." GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [PDF].
Foto: Clementina Panella et al., GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [in PDF].

Introduction
The urban landscape lying between the Colosseum valley, the northeast slopes of the Palatine hill and the Temple of Venus and Rome is the result of multiple urban changes occurring here during past centuries.

The current appearance, if we consider the floor in use today and the monuments present, reflects the aspect reached during the 4th century C.E. It must be said, of course, that what we see today is the result of spoliations and diggings made in this area of the city since the end of antiquity.

If it is true that the Colosseum and the Temple of Venus and Rome survived (more or less) these destructions and abuses, it is also clear that today they live in a metaphysical space because the urban connective system they belonged to does not exist anymore.

The first and substantial coup de grâce was given to this zone by interventions made in the first half of the 19th century (during Napoleonic administration and subsequent papal restoration) and later at the end of the same century, when Rome became the capital of Italy: all of these activities were planned in order to restore the levels of the ancient city and to enlarge the valley area; sadly this included the destruction of the medieval remains.

The second act, responsible for the isolation of today’s ancient architecture, happened during the fascist regime, when the Velia hill was almost totally demolished to build the brand new Via dell’Impero (now Via dei Fori Imperiali), linking the regime square, Piazza Venezia, with the Colosseum and after, to enlarge via di San Gregorio, renamed Via dei Trionfi, leading from the Colosseum to the Circus Maximus. On this occasion two imperial “ruins” were demolished: the base of the giant statue of Nero (the Colossus) and the Meta Sudans, a monumental fountain built in the Flavian era.

ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA 2021. Clementina Panella et al., "Colosseum square & NE slopes of the Palatine hill: an integrated 3D system for stratigraphic data management & ancient urban landscape reconstruction." GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [PDF].
Foto: Clementina Panella et al., GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [in PDF].

It is within this framework that the department of Antiquity Sciences of the Sapienza Rome University started in 1986 its archaeological excavations, first at the Meta Sudans (with an extended area going from the Arch of Constantine to the Colossus base) and later, from 2001, at the NE slopes of the Palatine hill, along the actual Via Sacra, reaching the Arch of Titus. The goals of these investigations were:

— To reconnect a very important monument such the Meta Sudans with the surrounding ancient topography,

— To restore the connection between the Colosseum valley and the Palatine hill interrupted by destructive activities carried out from the end of antiquity.

During our excavations we have adopted the “big areas” strategy and the stratigraphic procedure: we have investigated an area of about 4500 square meters, reaching a depth, were possible, of 8/9 meters, chasing the millenary history of this urban zone, from the first settlement at the foot of the Palatine hill (10th century BCE) to modern age spoliations and activities, including the contemporary city services and infrastructure (water pipes, electric lines and underground B line).

In order to reconstruct the original geomorphology, continuously modelled by human activities, we have conducted geophysical investigations, such as by means of augers or using tools such as ground-penetrating radar and resistivity.

To make an extreme synthesis of the main results, starting from the remains of Iron Age huts, found along the slope, we move on to an early urban planning witnessed by the presence of two sanctuaries dating to the Roman Kingdom (8th-7th century BCE) located along both sides of the ancient road leading to the Roman Forum: one of them has been identified with the Curiae Veteres, linked to the ancient Roman tradition and frequented until the end of antiquity. A residential zone along the road is documented from the archaic period: subsequently this area has been periodically rebuilt until Augustus age. In this period here, at the meeting point of five of the 14 city zones he first Meta Sudans was constructed in front of the Curiae Veteres, which were also renewed in monumental shape during the years of the emperor Claudius. After the big fire of year 64 Nero planned a deep transformation of the area linked with the building of his Domus Aurea. In the years between 64 and 68 CE it was carried out a reorganization of the roads assigning them a regular and orthogonal shape. The following urban planning of flavian emperors was focused instead on restoring a public dimension to this sector with the construction of the Colosseum and its square together and the rebuilding of the sanctuary and the Meta Sudans. Another big urban change will happen during Hadrian’s reign with the construction of the Venus and Rome Temple and, on the other side, of a long storehouse flanking the porticoed street direct to Forum. As a result of a further fire, broke out at the end of the 2nd century, the area was rebuilt again by the severian dynasty: in connection with the reorganization of the imperial palace the north east Palatine’s substructures were transformed and the constructions at the feet were replaced by a new building commonly called “Bagni di Elagabalo”. In the 4th century CE, in fact, a banquet hall with a small bath was created inside this complex; during the same century the Meta Sudans and the Venus and Rome Temple were restored and finally the Constantine’s Arch was built.

ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA 2021. Clementina Panella et al., "Colosseum square & NE slopes of the Palatine hill: an integrated 3D system for stratigraphic data management & ancient urban landscape reconstruction." GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [PDF].
Foto: Clementina Panella et al., GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [in PDF].

From the micro-history of the excavated area it has been necessary to skip to the macro-history of the whole ancient urban district, of whose landscape our investigations discovered very few parts: our research had to take into consideration the previous archaeological literature about the settlement vicissitudes of the whole Palatine, as well as of the Oppio, Celio and Velia hills; for the same reason we have acquired the data of geomorphological research focused on these zones.

Dealing with this purpose, we had to use computerized information tools for data collection and management, articulated into distinct chronologies and with graphic outputs able to reproduce the ancient spaces and their transformations over time, on a small and large representation scale.

Fonte / source:
— Clementina Panella et al., GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [in PDF] / Publishing date (28/03/2021).
https://groma.unibo.it/issue/panella-brienza-fornaciari-palatine-slopes

Fonte / source, foto:
— Mauro Sciambi / Roma. SKYPIXEL (31/01/2020).
https://www.skypixel.com/photos/the-great-beauty-c09dc63b-23ae-4a62-bee1-4fd6d8b5caa7

S.v.,

ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA 2021. Clementina Panella et al., "Colosseum square & NE slopes of the Palatine hill: an integrated 3D system for stratigraphic data management & ancient urban landscape reconstruction." GROMA 5 (2020): 1-24 [PDF].
Foto: Prof. Clementina Panella – Curiae Veteres Sanctuary in Rome Attracts the Curious [= Palatino, i segreti delle Curie Veteres il cantiere degli studenti-archeologi], THE NEW YORK TIMES August 12, (2015), p. C5.

2). ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA: Prof. Clementina Panella, “Indagini archeologiche e sistemazioni urbane,” pp. 21-71; in: Prof. Arch. R. Panella (ed.), Roma la città dei fori. Progetto di sistemazione dell’area archeologica tra Piazza Venezia e il Colosseo, Roma (2013) [Italiano | English in PDF]. (11/2017). https://wp.me/pPRv6-4ip

And,

3). ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA e RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA: Emanuele Brienza, Marco Fano & Clementina Panella, 30 years of urban archaeology: measuring, interpreting and reconstructing, pp. 49-54 [PDF]; in: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Metrology for Archaeology – Benevento – Italy – October 21 – 23, 2015. https://wp.me/pPRv6-4ip

— 4). ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA e RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA: ROME – “Curiae Veteres Sanctuary in Rome Attracts the Curious.” THE NEW YORK TIMES (11 Aug. 2015).