ISRAELE / VATICANO ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA 2021. Un’iscrizione che riporta “Cristo nato da Maria” ritrovata in un’antica chiesa in Israele; in: Israel Antiquities Authority, Aleteia, The Times of Israel & The Jerusalem Post (20-21/01/2020). [English / Hebrew & Italiano].
1). ISRAEL – Tayiba in the Valley of Jezreel, ISRAEL, “Christos, born of Maria”, Israel Antiquities Authority / Facebook (20/01/2021).
A 1,500-year-old Greek address was revealed in the excavations of the Ancient Authority in Tayiba in the Valley of Jezreel The address used part of a church door from the Byzantine era, and on it a dedication to Jesus – ′′ Christos, born of Maria “. It was found to be reusable, in one of the walls of a luxurious building dated to the ancient Byzantine or Arab period, from which two rooms were revealed with a mosaic floor with decoration. Geometric.
Dr. Leah Di-Sagani, an expert in ancient Greek writings from the Institute of Archaeology at האוניברסיטה h‘vryt in Jerusalem who decoded the address, says it is a dedication address that was captured while casting the foundations of the church. It was written in it: ′′ Christos born of Maria. This factory of [Theodo] Sios the most God-fearing and follower of the [and] the vile, was built from the foundations–. the incoming will pray for them.” According to Di-Deputy, the formula ′′ Christos born of Maria ״, is meant to protect the readers from the same eye The bad thing, and it was common at the beginning of writings and documents of the period.. Di-Sagani adds, that ′′ the address invites the following to the gates of the place and welcomes them. This is how you can know that it is a church and not a monastery: while the church is a blessing on the entrance of believers at its gates, the monasteries were avoided from doing so.”
Theodosius, mentioned in the address as responsible for the foundation of the structure, was one of the first bishops in Christianity. He served as the Regional Archbishop – the supreme religious authority of the Beit Shean metropolitan metropolitan, which Tayiba in the valley belonged to him.
Dr. Waleed Atrash from the Antiques Authority says that ′′ this is the first testimony to the church from the Byzantine period in Tayiba, which joins further testimonies of the activities of Christian residents in the area. In the past, the remains of a church from the Crusader period were revealed in the place, and recently it was discovered by Nurit Page from the Antiques Authority and Dr. Moti Aviam from the Kinneret College in Kfar Kama, a monastery, from the same series of monasteries subject to the metropolite of Beit.
According to the excavation directors, Tzachi Lang and Kojan Khacho from the Antiques Authority, ′′ In the excavation, findings were discovered from a variety of periods, shed light on the long settlement sequence in Taiba in the Valley, and its position among the settlements of the region “.
In the discovery of the discovery, the haunted pre-military preparatory trainees and Hanaton, students from the ′′ Democratic in the Valley ′′ school, volunteers and workers from the local community.
Photo: Tzachi Lang and Einat Amber-Chestnut, Antiques Authority
Fonte / source: Israel Antiquities Authority / Facebook (20/01/2021).
2). Un’iscrizione che riporta “Cristo nato da Maria” ritrovata in un’antica chiesa in Israele / L’Autorità per le Antichità di Israele. Aleteia (21/01/2021).
L’Autorità per le Antichità di Israele ha annunciato mercoledì che l’iscrizione si trova all’entrata di un edificio del periodo bizantino o del primo periodo islamico
Quando Gesù stava per entrare a Gerusalemme, qualche giorno prima della Sua crocifissione, le folle Lo hanno acclamato, gridando “Benedetto il Re che viene nel nome del Signore”. Alcuni farisei non hanno gradito e Gli hanno detto “Maestro, sgrida i tuoi discepoli!”, al che Gesù ha risposto: “Vi dico che se costoro tacciono, le pietre grideranno”.
Iscrizione antichissima – Duemila anni dopo è stata ritrovata una pietra a Taiba, nel nord di Israele, che sembra davvero gridare. Scoperta questa settimana, recita in greco “Cristo, nato da Maria”.
L’Autorità per le Antichità di Israele ha annunciato mercoledì 20 gennaio che l’iscrizione è incisa all’entrata di un edificio del periodo bizantino o del primo periodo islamico. La pietra è stata inserita in un secondo momento in un edificio riccamente decorato.
“L’importanza dell’iscrizione risiede nel fatto che fino a questo momento non sapevamo con certezza che ci fossero chiese di questo periodo in questa zona”, ha affermato l’archeologo dell’Autorità per le Antichità di Israele Walid Atrash al Times of Israel.
“Ci sono molti segni di antica vita cristiana nella regione – la Piana di Esradelon –, ma questa è la prima prova dell’esistenza della chiesa bizantina nel villaggio di Taiba”, ha riferito Atrash al Jerusalem Post.
Taiba era un villaggio cristiano nel periodo bizantino, e in seguito è diventato il sito di una fortezza crociata.
“Il moderno villaggio arabo è cresciuto intorno ad essa, e alcuni resti sono ancora visibili”, ha affermato l’archeologo dell’Autorità per le Antichità di Israele Yardenna Alexandre.
“Pregate per loro”
L’iscrizione completa recita:
“Cristo nato da Maria. Quest’opera del vescovo più pio e timoroso di Dio [Theodo]sius e del miserevole T[ommaso] è stata costruita dalle basi. Chiunque vi entri dovrebbe pregare per loro”.
“L’iscrizione saluta quanti entrano e li benedice. È quindi chiaro che l’edificio è una chiesa, e non un monastero”, ha dichiarato in una conferenza stampa Leah Di Segni, ricercatrice dell’Istituto di Archeologia dell’Università Ebraica di Gerusalemme. Le chiese, a differenza dei monasteri dell’epoca, salutavano i visitatori all’ingresso, ha ricordato.
Trovare il nome di Theodosius, arcivescovo della metropoli di Beit She’an, a cui Taiba apparteneva nel V secolo, ha aiutato gli archeologi a datare la pietra.
The Times ha aggiunto che sulla pietra c’è un’ampia zona circolare vuota, dove per Atrash una volta era incisa una croce. A suo avviso, venne intenzionalmente distrutta – dai cristiani o dagli ebrei che vivevano nella zona – prima che la pietra venisse “riciclata” per essere inserita nel muro dell’edificio successivo.
“L’iscrizione, ha affermato, faceva parte del rivestimento interno della parete e non sarebbe stata visibile”, ha spiegato il Times. “L’edificio è stato costruito prima dell’avvento dell’islam, ma era ancora usato durante il periodo musulmano”.
“Un’altra spiegazione per la rimozione della croce, ha dichiarato Atrash, è che la chiesa originaria, cadendo in disuso alla fine dell’impero bizantino, sia stata distrutta in uno dei tanti terremoti che hanno colpito la regione in quel periodo. Potrebbe essere stata danneggiata e poi riutilizzata dai cristiani o dagli ebrei che costruirono la successiva struttura a due stanze, ornata da un pavimento a mosaico con motivi geometrici, oggetto di recente di scavi da parte di un gruppo di studenti, volontari e lavoratori della comunità locale”.
The Post ha affermato che le parole “Cristo nato da Maria” erano ampiamento usate all’inizio dei documenti o di altre forme di testo, servendo come benedizione e protezione dal male.
“Come benedizione, l’iscrizione doveva trovarsi originariamente all’ingresso della chiesa, dove la gente poteva vederla”, ha detto Alexandre. “Ad ogni modo, ora è stata trovata inserita nelle pareti, e quindi sappiamo che la pietra è stata riutilizzata come materiale da costruzione. Probabilmente l’edificio ha collassato ed è poi stato ricostruito”.
Fonte / source:
— Aleteia (21/01/2021).
3). ‘Christ born of Mary’: 1st proof of early Christianity found in Galilee village. THE TIMES OF ISRAEL (20/01/2021).
Greek inscription provides evidence of a hitherto-unknown 5th century Byzantine-era church; the find ‘closes a circle’ on Christian settlement in small Jezreel Valley village Taibe.
With the words, “Christ born of Mary,” archaeologists have discovered the first evidence of an early Christian settlement from 1,500 years ago in what is today the location of a small Arab village near Nazareth.
According to Israel Antiquities Authority researchers, a recently discovered Greek inscription dedicated to the Christian Messiah had originally been laid at the entry way of a previously unknown 5th century church. The inscribed stone was recently discovered in secondary use in a wall of the late-Byzantine era structure during excavations in Taibe, located in the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel. According to the text, the church was founded under the auspices of the well-known late 5th century Beit She’an regional archbishop Theodosius, whose name in the partially destroyed text provided the archaeologists with a secure dating.
“The importance of the inscription is that until now we didn’t know for certain that there were churches from this period in this area,” Israel Antiquities Authority archaeologist Walid Atrash told The Times of Israel. Other remains from this period have been uncovered in nearby Tamra and a monastery was recently discovered by the IAA’s Nurit Feig and Moti Aviam of Kinneret College in neighboring Kfar Kama.
Ruins of a Crusader-period church were previously discovered at Taibe, said Atrash, but until now there has been no evidence of a Christian presence from the earlier Byzantine era. Although the location is not mentioned in the New Testament, the discovery that there was a Byzantine-era church built here is “unsurprising,” said Atrash.
The new inscription has “closed the circle, and now we know there were Christians in this area during this era,” he said.
The inscription was discovered in secondary use as a wall building block in an ornately decorated two-room building that was constructed in the late Byzantine era, when both Christians and Jews resided in the Galilee. The archaeologists believe the building was used well into the early Muslim period. It is unknown, said Atrash, whether Christians or Jews initially constructed it.
The partially destroyed seven-line Greek text inscribed on the stone was a dedicatory inscription that was originally engraved while casting the foundations of the presumed church, according to Leah DiSegni, a researcher at the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. According to DiSegni, it reads: “Christ born of Mary. This work of the most God-fearing and pious bishop [Theodo]sius and the miserable Th[omas] was built from the foundation – -. Whoever enters should pray for them.”
According to DiSegni the wording “Christ born of Mary” serves as a good luck charm to ward off the evil eye.
There is a large blank circular area interrupting the text, which Atrash said once held a large cross. Atrash believes that one explanation for the removal of the crucifix is that the cross was intentionally destroyed — by Christians or Jews who lived in the area — prior to the stone’s recycled use in the wall of the later building. The inscription, he said, faced inside the wall and would not have been visible. The building was constructed prior to the advent of Islam, but was still in use during the Muslim period.
Another explanation for the removal of the cross, said Atrash, is that the original church, falling into disuse at the end of the Byzantine empire, was destroyed in one of the several earthquakes that hit the region during this time. The stone may have been damaged and then reused by the Christians or Jews who constructed the subsequent two-room structure, adorned by geometric mosaic flooring, that was recently excavated by a mix of students, volunteers and workers from the local community.
The mention of Theodosius in the inscription, said Atrash, and its presumed location at the entryway provides clues that it was used in a church, rather than a monastery, in that it is clearly welcoming parishioners into the church doors, rather than serving a closed monastic community. Noted DiSegni in the IAA press release, “The inscription greets those who enter and blesses them. It is therefore clear that the building is a church, and not a monastery: Churches greeted believers at their entrance, while monasteries tended not to do this.”
Atrash further explained that Theodosius encouraged the construction of churches in his region and the mention of his name here points to a financial donation from his seat in Beit She’an, the center of the religious life and the capital of Palaestina Secunda, a Byzantine province from 390 CE until the Muslim invasion of circa 636 CE.
The inscription and two-room building were discovered during salvage excavations directed by the IAA’s Tzachi Lang and Kojan Haku prior to the construction of a road inside the modern-day small village of Taibe.
Fonte / source:
— THE TIMES OF ISRAEL (20/01/2021).
4). Ancient ‘Christ, born of Mary’ inscription unearthed in northern Israel – The region of the Jezreel Valley bears many testimonies of ancient Christian life. The Jerusalem Post (20/01/2020).
A 1,500-year-old Greek inscription bearing the name “Christ, born of Mary” was unearthed in northern Israel, the Antiquities Authority announced on Wednesday.
The archaeologists discovered the inscription engraved at the entrance of an impressive building from the Byzantine or early Islamic period, featuring mosaic pavements decorated with a geometric design.
The finding was unveiled in a salvage excavation directed by Tzachi Lang and Kojan Haku ahead of the construction of a road inside the village of Taiba in the Jezreel Valley.
“We did not know what to expect ahead of the work, but we knew that this was an area where archaeological remains had been found. When we came across the inscription, we knew we had a church,” Antiquities Authority (IAA) archaeologist Yardenna Alexandre told The Jerusalem Post.
According to the law in Israel, a salvage excavation must be conducted prior to any construction project. People from local communities are usually invited to take part in the projects, according to a consolidated policy by the IAA to foster interest in archaeology and the country’s heritage.
“Christ born of Mary. This work of the most God-fearing and pious bishop [Theodo]sius and the miserable Th[omas] was built from the foundation. Whoever enters should pray for them,” reads the full inscription, according to Dr. Leah Di Segni, researcher at the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Fonte / source:
— The Jerusalem Post (20/01/2020).